History

Year of Treaty 1 & 2: Saturday July 29, 1871

Year of Treaty 1 & 2: Saturday July 29, 1871

Saturday, 29 July 1871 There was confusion when the Indians responded by presenting claims for enormous reserves sites, each of the First Nations set out the portion of their traditional territory each was reserving, perhaps totalling two-thirds of the illegal assumption of the newly created postage-stamp province of Manitoba (1870), despite the repeated emphasis by …

Year of Treaty 1 & 2: Friday July 28, 1871

Year of Treaty 1 & 2: Friday July 28, 1871

Friday, 28 July 1871 The next day, Ay-ee-ta-pe-pe-tung [One who speaks the truth] (A Spiritual Leader west side of Lake Manitoba  – He may have been from Crane River … he says in the Treaty 1  proceedings that he comes from the third campfire beyond the White Mud River or something like that. His name once was found …

Part Four of the Indian Act: Indigenous Policy in Transition

Part Four of the Indian Act: Indigenous Policy in Transition

Contemporary amendments and revisions of the Indian Act, 1952 to present Since the revisions of 1951, the Indian Act has continued to undergo changes, both in terms of its underlying philosophy and its specific provisions. The following provides an overview of the Indian Act during the period 1952 to Present. Conflicting Views on Indigenous Policy From the 1950s …

Part Three of the Indian Act: Assimilation Reinforced

Part Three of the Indian Act: Assimilation Reinforced

The Indian Act from 1876 to 1951 – Since its introduction in 1876, the Indian Act has undergone several amendments and reforms. The following provides a summary of key changes to the Indian Act during the period 1876 to 1951. Between 1876 and 1950, the purpose of the Indian Act was to strengthen the philosophy of civilization …

Part Two of the Indian Act: The evil Philosophy of the Act

Part Two of the Indian Act: The evil Philosophy of the Act

The first Indian Act adopted an explicit vision of assimilation, in which Indians would be encouraged to leave behind their Indian status and traditional cultures and become full members of the broader Canadian society. In this context, Indians were viewed as children or wards of the state, to which the government had a paternalistic duty …

The Indian Act known as Canada’s racist and deceiving acts under Canadian Law

The Indian Act known as Canada’s racist and deceiving acts under Canadian Law

Part One: A historical view of the Indian Act: Before it became a colonizing force, the Crown acted as a mechanism that enabled settlers to engage in meaningful negotiations and ceremony with civilizations that were different from their own. Confederation later disrupted these relationships, eclipsing treaties and placing them under the control of Canada – …

PART FOUR: TREATY MEDALS

PART FOUR: TREATY MEDALS

RED SUN RISING When Canada commissioned the Montréal silversmith, Robert Hendry, they wish to depict a scene of equal stature of a Queen’s Councillors taking the Indian by the hand saying through treaties we are brothers. A stylized Indian encampment at sunset representing “As long as the shine shines and the grass grows.” As Treaties with …

PART THREE: TREATY MEDALS

PART THREE: TREATY MEDALS

THE TREATY MEDALS By 1872, the medals were seen as not impressive enough and to attempt to mollify the resentment, the government of Canada quickly commissioned the Montréal silversmith, Robert Hendry, to produce 25 replacement medals for the Chief’s of Treaty 1 & 2. The new Chief’s Medal of agriculture theme was now replaced by a …

PART TWO: TREATY MEDALS

PART TWO: TREATY MEDALS

DOMINION OF CANADA CHIEF’S MEDAL Not long after Confederation, in 1871, Canada negotiated treaties with various Anishinaabe and Mushkego (Swampy Cree) peoples of what is now southern Manitoba (Treaty Nos. 1 and 2) as a means of opening up new land for immigration and settlement, while the Indigenous signatories hoped to gain some measure of …

PART ONE: TREATY MEDALS

PART ONE: TREATY MEDALS

FRENCH/BRITISH INDIAN PEACE MEDALS King George III and his iconic “Peace Medal,” which were given to the Chiefs dating back to the 17th century. The silver medal perfectly symbolizes the three founding peoples of Canada. The medal was struck in France under Louis XV (1715-1744) for distribution to the leaders of Indigenous allies or to …